In archaeological research, the new field referred to informally as landscape archaeology discusses the methods and goals of past landscape analysis.   Those discussions were mainly conducted by Western European archaeologists since the XXth century. After studies based on idealized landscape reconstructions, archaeologists introduced a more scientific and structuralist approach with the aid of various survey types. Those first studies, thanks to their systematic focus on micro-regions, promoted general models applicable in all environments.

Increasing research modified the perspective on the environment; its evolution is no more thought as a succession of layers caused by various human actions. Now, a majority of researchers have a better-resolved and more dynamic idea of landscape and environmental evolution.

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